Neuropathic pain, also referred to as neuralgia, occurs when the nerves in the body begin to send faulty pain signals. This is what you should know if you’re suffering from this type of pain, as well as treatments that can help.

What Is Neuropathic Pain?

In the U.S., nearly 10% of adults over the age of 30 suffer from neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain can originate from any nerve in the body. Common symptoms include:

  • Burning
  • Tingling (“pins and needles”) sensations
  • Sensitivity
  • Numbness
  • Difficulty sensing temperatures

Even things like your clothes brushing against the affected area can spark pain signals. It’s as if your nerves have lost the ability to tell what hurts and what doesn’t.

What Are Common Neuropathic Pain Causes?

The root cause of neuropathic pain is damage to the nerve itself. This can occur due to trauma or injury to the nerve. There are also other medical conditions that can cause nerve damage.

There are four main types of neuropathic pain.

  1. Central neuropathy: Neuropathic pain that originates from the central nervous system (the brain and the spinal cord)
  2. Peripheral neuropathy: Affecting nerves in the limbs, hands, and feet (which are controlled by the peripheral nervous system)
  3. Focal neuropathy: This type affects only a single nerve in the head, hand, torso, or leg
  4. Mixed neuropathy: Mixed neuropathy also has elements of pain from a specific type of injury (not just nerve damage)

These different types of pain have roots in a variety of causes. Some of these causes include the following:

  • Diabetes
  • Chronic alcoholism
  • Amputation of a limb
  • Herpes zoster infection (shingles)
  • Spinal surgery
  • Problems in the back, hips, or legs
  • Cancer
  • Chemotherapy drugs
  • Certain infections (such as HIV or AIDS)
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Problems with the facial nerve
  • Various other nerve conditions

Do I Have Neuropathic Pain?

The first step in treating neuropathic pain is getting a proper diagnosis.  In many cases, this can be challenging. Symptoms are sometimes vague and fleeting. There may be no clear beginning of pain or known cause. The first diagnostic tool is always collecting a medical history. This helps your doctor gather as much information as possible.

Your doctor might also use a pain scale to assess your pain. They might also ask you to keep a pain journal to identify triggers and to track pain.

After the medical history, a physical examination is important. This helps determine if you are struggling to differentiate between sensations (e.g., hot/cold and sharp/dull).

If after these examinations a nerve injury is suspected, your doctor may order a nerve conduction study. This tracks electrical activity in the nerves to see if they are responding (and how well).

Additional testing may be ordered, including blood work to look for nutritional deficiencies. This also helps rule out other chronic medical conditions. Your doctor may also order imaging studies to check for lesions in the spinal cord or other possible causes of your pain.

Neuropathic Pain Treatments That Can Help

Finding neuropathic pain treatments can be challenging. Traditional over-the-counter pain and anti-inflammatory medications may not work for neuropathic pain.

Proper neuropathic pain treatment starts with identifying the underlying cause, if possible. Once this occurs, your doctor can evaluate what damage can be reversed. Nerves are remarkably resilient, and can, in some cases, heal and regenerate. This process can take months or even years, but it is possible for some people.

If your nerve damage cannot be reversed or effectively managed, you have many treatment options available. You may a combination of these approaches to manage your pain. Always talk to your doctor before starting any treatment regimen.